There are 33 types of landscape pattern in Vologda Region.
More than 80% of the territory is full of forests with such fine wood as spruce and pine.
The territory of Vologda Region is connected with the White Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Baltic Sea. There are about 20,000 rivers and streams and more than 5,000 lakes. The largest rivers are the Sukhona, the Yug, the Kubena, the Sheksna, the Suda, the Mologa.
Most lakes are in the Western part of the Region. The largest lakes are White Lake, Lake Vozhe, Lake Kubenskoe, Rybinsk Reservoir and Sheksna Reservoir.
Vologda Region is rich in water resources and thrives in fishing. Fishery species are season-bound fish (smelt, european smelt), ordinary fish (bream, zander) and valuable fish (vendace, whitefish). Especially valuable fish species dwelling in Vologda Region waters are sterlet, stenodus nelma, whitefish, trout and lake char. In General, 58 species of fish inhabit the waters.
The mineral resource range of the Region includes fluxing limestones, carbonate rocks for lime production, sand and pebble, glass-making sand, molding sand, construction sand, brick and roof tiles clays, keramzite clay and pottery clays, mineral pigments, peat, sapropel and ground water.
The main consumers of mineral resources in Vologda Region are metallurgical industry, enterprises of housing and utility services, road facility companies and construction material industry.
Groundwater is one of the most important resources and is crucial as a source of fresh water supply for the population. Fresh groundwater reserves are mostly concentrated in the Western part of the Region, where abundant coal formation are common. The Central and Eastern parts of the Region are provided with ground water poorly and unevenly.
Mineral waters are also widespread in Vologda Region. They include 119 fresh water resources, 5 water resources of industrial use and 17 healing mineral springs. Most of the mineral waters are used at health improvement institutions for spa, health, drinking and dining needs. Healing mineral waters of Vologda Region are indicated for treatment of cardiovascular, nervous, musculoskeletal systems diseases and respiratory organs, gastrointestinal tract and metabolic disorders.